Sorapure’s webtext contributes significantly to discussions of new media assessment. As students are frequently assigned an array of new media projects including websites, blogs, images, videos, audio projects, flash projects, etc. Sorapure argues that we need a broad rhetorical approach to assessment, one that can speak to the multimodal aspects of composition.She emphasizes the need for “new lenses” so that we don’t “lose the chance to see new values emerging in the new medium.” In efforts not to limit new media works, Sorapure draws from the tropes of metaphor and metonymy to understand how meaning “emerges from” multimodal works. Drawing on Roman Jakobson’s (1956) essay “Two Aspects of Language and Two Types of Aphasic Disturbances,” Sorapure claims that metaphor and metonmy name “two different forces at work in the production of meaning.”
Metaphor designates a relation based on substitution; in a multimodal work, one mode can metaphorically represent or stand in for another, as when an animation of a word dynamically represents its meaning. It is a relation based on similarity between elements in different modes.
Metonymy designates a relation based on combination; modes can be metonymically related when they are linked by an association, as when lines from a poem are combined with a melodyfrom a song. It is a relation based on contiguity between elements in different modes.
Sorapure shares various student examples to illustrate how she uses the tropes in assessing multimodal compositions. She carefully demonstrates how metaphor and metonymy activate strong or weak relations between visual and verbal modes. (For example, if the composition lacks metaphor…it falls flat.)
While “text, sound, and image each add their own part to the meaning….” it is also crucial to look at the relations between modes -”because metaphor and metonymy designate relations between two or more entities, they can be used to describe the relations between modes.
“Metaphor and metonymy provide a language with which to talk to our students about how the different modes in their projects come together to make meaning.”
I, too, think that the relation between modes is key to meaning making. I wonder, though. Do text, sound, image, each “add their part to the meaning.” Does meaning “emerge” from text, image, sound as Sorapure posits? Or is it made by the audience’s confrontation with it? This may seem like a small semantics thing, but it’s the kind of thing that keeps me up at night.
Design Thinking: Integrating Innovation, Customer Experience and Brand Value. Edited by Thomas Lockwood. (2009)
Design thinking is about applying a designer’s sensibility and methods to problem solving. It’s more of a methodology – a theory of doing research – than a particular tool or technique. Design thinking may involve various methods such as field observation or ethnography in addition to market research. The tools, however, are not as important as the overall approach. This book is useful in that it provides numerous case studies on design thinking featuring Eames, Steelcase, Bon Appétit, Linux, Dyson, etc. Most useful, I believe, is what the book says about creating a meaningful people-centered experience. Here a few takeaways:
Create experiences that people care about
People demand experiences that matter. Social capital is just as important as economic capital. Social capital helps people create meaning from their experiences. A designer’s role should help people create meaning through various touchpoints. Designers can do this through research that identifies “moments of truth.” A good research design might examine users’ patterns, stories, and insights. The designer can then engineer more meaningful moments like those.
Designers need to conduct research that helps them to:
Understand what is meaningful to users
Discover user’s unarticulated needs and desires
Imagine the world from the user perspective
Connect with users around what is meaningful and valuable to them
This makes people care more
A strange thing happens when a person sees that you care. They often reciprocate the gesture and care about you right back. The emotional connection is powerful; people have a natural tendency to care, a gut-level intuition. People who are emotionally influenced will seek the product, service (etc.) because they desire a tangible, physical manifestation of the relationship. This is where social media comes into play. Nurturing and sustaining relationships via designed social media strategies facilitates more meaning, more connection, more lifestyle integration.